Turtle Mountain Band blue
The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians is a segment of the Chippewa tribe based on the Turtle Mountain Reservation in Rolette County, North Dakota. The tribe has 30,000 enrolled members. A population of 5,815 reside on the main reservation and another 2,516 reside on off-reservation trust land (as of the 2000 census). The tribal offices are located in Belcourt, North Dakota. The current Tribal Chairman is David "Doc" Brien, who began his duties as chairman in January of 2007.*************The main reservation lies in the northern part of Rolette County, North Dakota and has a land area of 175.039 km² (67.583 sq mi) and a 2000 census population of 5,815 persons. However, there are very extensive off-reservation trust lands that make the reservation's lands the most widely dispersed of all reservations in the nation. These lands are spread across 22 counties in three states: North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. Including these lands the reservation's land area rises more than three-fold to 603.560 km² (233.036 sq mi). Its total resident population at the 2000 census was 8,331. Rolette County itself has the largest portion of off-reservation trust land, but there are significant parcels in Phillips, Blaine, Sheridan, and Roosevelt Counties in Montana, and in Williams County, North Dakota. Sixteen other counties have lesser amounts of land.******************The Ojibwa, Aanishanabe or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway, Anishinaabe, or Anishinabek) is the largest group of Native Americans/First Nations north of Mexico, including Métis. They are the third largest in the USA, surpassed only by Cherokee and Navajo. They are about equally divided between the United States and Canada. Because they formerly were located mainly around Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, the French referred to them as Saulteurs; Ojibwa who subsequently moved to the Prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux. The major component group of the Anishinaabe, in the US they number over 100,000 living in an area stretching across the north from Michigan to Montana. Another 76,000, in 125 bands, live in Canada, stretching from western Québec to eastern British Columbia. They are known for their Birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, the use of cowrie shells, wild rice, copper points, and for the fact that they were the only Native Americans to defeat the Sioux at times. The Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda for signing more detailed treaties with Canada's leaders before many settlers were allowed too far west. The Midewiwin Society was well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, history, songs, maps, memories, stories, geometry, and mathematics.*******************Their first historical mention occurs in the Jesuit Relation of 1640. Through their friendship with the French traders they were able to obtain guns and thus successfully end their hereditary wars with the Sioux and Foxes on their west and south, with the result that the Sioux were driven out from the Upper Mississippi region, and the Foxes forced down from northern Wisconsin and compelled to ally with the Sauk. By the end of the eighteenth century the Ojibwa were the nearly unchallenged owners of almost all of present-day Michigan, northern Wisconsin, and Minnesota, including most of the Red River area, together with the entire northern shores of Lakes Huron and Superior on the Canadian side and extending westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, where they became known as the Plains Ojibwa or Saulteaux. The Ojibwa were part of a long term alliance with the Ottawa and Potawatomi First Nations, called the Council of Three Fires and which fought with the Iroquois Confederacy and the Sioux. The Ojibwa expanded eastward taking over the lands alongside the eastern shores of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay. The Ojibwa allied themselves with the French in the French and Indian War, and with the British in the War of 1812.************************In the USA, the government attempted to remove all the Ojibwa to Minnesota west of Mississippi River culminating in the Sandy Lake Tragedy and several hundred deaths. Through the efforts of Chief Buffalo and popular opinion against Ojibwa removal, the bands east of the Mississippi were allowed to return to permanent reservations on ceded territory. A few families were removed to Kansas as part of the Potawatomi removal. In Canada, the cession of land by treaty or purchase was governed by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and subsequently most of the land in Upper Canada was ceded to the Crown. In northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta the numbered treaties were signed. British Columbia had no signed treaties until the late 1900's, and most areas have no treaties yet. There are ongoing treaty land entitlements to settle and negotiate. The treaties are constantly being reinterpreted by the courts because many of them are vague and difficult to apply in modern times. However, the numbered treaties were some of the most detailed treaties signed for their time. The Ojibwa Nation set the agenda and negotiated the first numbered treaties before they would allow safe passage of many more settlers to the praries.